Autour du Jazz - Voici un programme destiné à présenter à tout public, l’histoire d’une musique sincère et généreuse, le Jazz, musique universelle qui rayonne depuis plus ...
Music, which assigns divine origins, is the universal language.
"The man develops vocal techniques, sound tools, languages and strategies to communicate remotely. Then, these 50 000 years, the emerging contours of a communication with the world of invisible for the development of religious conscience."
The voice and percussion, related to dance, may be the first elements of music emerged from the Paleolithic.
There are more than 25 000 years, the first musical instruments appear. The excavations attest. These are mostly aerophones made in horns, teeth or bones of animals.
Civilizations emerging inventing new instruments: bells, harps, rebab, trumpets ...
Starting from the Renaissance musical instruments are improved and new instruments are invented.
The most advanced, piano, born in the eighteenth century.
Origin of Music & Instruments at Bjazz
The opposition and the contrasts between African and European cultures have contributed to the emergence of jazz. These are the African slaves deported to the USA until the early nineteenth century are at the root of jazz. African music is made of songs, rhythm (drums) and the instruments are very diverse: flutes, Koras, banjos ... In the southern U.S. rhythm and African music will be transformed, in contact with European civilization, in Gospel, Blues and Ragtime.
Africa Europa at Bjazz
In America, African slaves, while keeping the memory of its culture (Griot, singing, rhythm, dance), meets European civilization by the Catholic and Protestant. It then processes the song in its own way. Religious music becomes a specifically black music: the Spiritual later called Gospel. The rhythm'n'blues and Soul music is directly inspired by the Gospel.
Gospel and Soul at Bjazz
The Blues is probably the musical form most widely used today in the Jazz, Soul Music, Rock, Pop music ...
It was developed in the nineteenth century in the southern states of the USA from the abolition of slavery. Its origins date back mainly to the art of African griots, and cantiques became Negro Spirituals in contact with African slaves.
The bluesman is a farmer who tells his story, that of his people, discusses the joys and sorrows, love, often with humor.
The most common form of Blues is 12 measures.
The colors of Blues, his blue notes: the third and the seventh minor, then augmented fourth (E-flat, B flat, F sharp, in the range of C major)
In the early twentieth century, the 78s showed great bluesmen like Lightnin 'Hopkins, Sonny Terry, Blind Willie Johnson, T Bone Walker or Robert Johnson, son of farmers in South Carolina, which is the main inspiration of BB King and Jimi Hendrix.
The Blues at BJazz
The piano is the most accomplished musical instrument. It gives to the harmony and the melody the most vast possibilities. And jazz pianists them build themes and chord progressions the most important in the evolution of this music.
Ragtime, based on the Cake-walk and European classical music, is music written by cultivated Afro-Americans.
The pianists of jazz will be inspired by the Ragtime to create the styles Stride (left hand play bass on downbeat and chord on afterbeat) and Boogie-woogie (bass on every beat) who are at the origin of the Swing.
Jazz Piano Styles at BJazz
BIRTH OF JAZZ
Jazz, music of dance and celebration, was born in New Orleans at the end of the nineteenth century. It is interpreted by african-Americans.
Orchestras are Marching Band which quickly include piano, double bass and drums to play inside.
The drum set, the association of drums and cymbals is an instrument invented by jazzmen.
First recordings of Jazz are made in Chicago. The very first is the work of the Original Dixieland Jass Band, an orchestra of white musicians.
The first masters of Jazz are trumpeters : Buddy Bolden, King Oliver, Louis Armstrong.
Louis Armstrong, trumpeter and singer, is the big boss of jazz. He gave to jazz its codes.
His introduction to "West End Blues" will be the emblem of jazz to come.
From New Orleans to Chicago & Louis Armstrong at BJazz
Already in the late 1920s, jazz bands get bigger (10 musicians) and the arrangements are beginning to emerge, especially in Fletcher Henderson, Louis Russell and Duke Ellington.
In Kansas City at the beginning of 1930s, Bennie Moten and some others create big orchestras called Big Band. Moten dies suddenly and Count Basie takes back his orchestra to create his famous bigband which will equal that of Duke Ellington, in the length and popularity.
Soon, bands from 15 to 20 musicians cover clubs and ballrooms American (4 trumpets, 4 trombones, 5 saxophones, rhythm section and singer). The style is out of New Orleans. This is the Swing, nonchalant, inherited from the boogie-woogie. It's always a dance music. Bass mark all time as the drums that also relies on the beat after (hi-hat cymbals play the 2nd and 4th time). The drummers are an important component of bigband : Sonny Greer, Jo Jones, Chick Webb, Gene Krupa, Buddy Rich ...
Jazz, which has grown rapidly thanks to the disc, radio, the prohibition and Jewish, Italian, irish mafias, becomes the most popular music.
In the 1940s, the Be Bop appears. Dizzy Gillespie mount bigband. In 1948, the Metronome All Stars, ephemeral bigband bebop, is full of stars of jazz.
Count Basie's bigband crosses decades with brio.
From the 1950s, it becomes difficult to mount a bigband. Two successes, however: Thad Jones & Mel Lewis, Gil Evans.
Thad Jones, a former trumpeter with Basie and brilliant arranger, joins the drummer Mel Lewis.
Gil Evans, pianist, arranger, conductor, worked with Miles Davis in 4 albums including "Porgy and Bess" and "Sketches of Spain".
The Big Band Era at BJazz